Phylloxera is a silent and stealth killer, destroying grapevines by attacking their roots. … Early California winemakers shunned native American vines in favor of Vitis vinifera from Europe, which are known for producing many of the world’s finest wine grape varieties.
What is phylloxera and how did it impact the world of wine?
One particular pest, an aphid that came to be known as Phylloxera vastatrix, was especially damaging. This microscopic insect, native to the Mississippi Valley of the eastern United States, practically destroyed all the world’s vineyards once freed from its native land.
What exactly is phylloxera?
Phylloxera is a microscopic louse or aphid, that lives on and eats roots of grapes. It can infest a vineyard from the soles of vineyard worker’s boots or naturally spreading from vineyard-to-vineyard by proximity. Families and businesses alike lost their vineyards to a microscopic aphid: Grape Phylloxera is a louse.
What is the major result from phylloxera?
On Vitis vinifera, the resulting deformations on roots (“nodosities” and “tuberosities”) and secondary fungal infections can girdle roots, gradually cutting off the flow of nutrients and water to the vine.
When did phylloxera hit South Africa?
In 1866, the phylloxera epidemic reached the Cape, causing widespread devastation that would take more than 20 years to recover from.
What is the main difference between sparkling wine and still wine?
The main difference between sparkling and still wines is that sparkling wines have dissolved in them carbon dioxide. The bubbles effect is achieved during a second fermentation. During this process, winemakers add to the still wine a mixture of yeast and sugars which produces carbon dioxide.
What are the four main classifications of wine?
To make it simple, we will classify the wine into 5 main categories; Red, White, Rose, Sweet or Dessert and Sparkling.
- White Wine. Many of you may understand that white wine is made of white grapes alone, but actually it can be either red or black grapes. …
- Red Wine. …
- Rose Wine. …
- Dessert or Sweet Wine. …
- Sparkling Wine.
How do you kill phylloxera?
There is no way to eradicate phylloxera from an infested vineyard. It will eventually kill sus- ceptible grapevines. The only way to manage an infestation in the long term is to replant the vine- yard to vines grafted to a resistant rootstock (see Chapter 6).
Why is Chile not in danger of phylloxera?
The most common grapes are Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Carmenère. So far Chile has remained free of the phylloxera louse, which means that the country’s grapevines do not need to be grafted with phylloxera-resistant rootstocks.
How do you identify phylloxera?
The first signs of a phylloxera infestation in a vineyard are yellowing and stunted growth of individual grapevines (Figure 2). Another sign is an increase in weed growth under an infested grapevine. These symptoms usually appear 1-3 years after the initial infestation.
What causes phylloxera?
These bumps are galls caused by the grape phylloxera, an aphid-like insect with the rather intimidating name of Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, that once endangered the grape industry in Europe.
Which country is phylloxera free?
However, most grape- producing regions of the world already have established populations of grapevine phylloxera. The only regions which still remain free of phylloxera in the EPPO region are Cyprus, and small parts of Greece, Czech Republic, Switzerland and the UK.
How is phylloxera spread?
By the way, there are many ways that phylloxera can spread. Since our rootstock hybrids are not immune, phylloxera can enter a vineyard on the roots of grafted vines. From there, phylloxera nymphs or crawlers will periodically climb their way up to the soil surface, where they can easily be carried by the wind.
Which South African wine route was one of the world’s first in 1971?
– Stellenbosch is South Africa’s leading wine region where the first Cape wine route was established in 1971, providing a catalyst for the country’s burgeoning wine tourism industry.
How old is the South African wine industry?
The first harvest was made on 2 February 1659 (as noted in Van Riebeeck’s log) seven years after the landing in 1652. The man succeeding Van Riebeeck as governor of the Cape of Good Hope, Simon van der Stel, sought to improve the quality of viticulture in the region.
Who started the wine industry in South Africa?
The Van der Stel Era (1679–1712) The founding father of South African wines is Simon van der Stel (1639–1712), the tenth Commander and then first Governor of the Colony (Figure 2).